LEVIATHAN
OR
THE MATTER, FORME, & POWER
OF A COMMON-WEALTH
ECCLESIASTICAL AND
CIVILL

By Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury.

Printed for Andrew Crooke,
at the Green Dragon
in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651.


TO MY MOST HONOR'D FRIEND
Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN
of GODOLPHIN

HONOR'D SIR.

Your most worthy Brother Mr SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, when he lived, was pleas'd to think my studies something, and otherwise to oblige me, as you know, with reall testimonies of his good opinion, great in themselves, and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man, either to the service of God, or to the service of his Country, to Civill Society, or private Friendship, that did not manifestly appear in his conversation, not as acquired by necessity, or affected upon occasion, but inhaerent, and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him, and with devotion to your selfe, I humbly Dedicate unto you this my discourse of Common-wealth. I know not how the world will receive it, nor how it may reflect on those that shall seem to favour it. For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded. But yet, me thinks, the endeavour to advance the Civill Power, should not be by the Civill Power condemned; nor private men, by reprehending it, declare they think that Power too great. Besides, I speak not of the men, but (in the Abstract) of the Seat of Power, (like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol, that with their noyse defended those within it, not because they were they, but there) offending none, I think, but those without, or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. That which perhaps may most offend, are certain Texts of Holy Scripture, alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. But I have done it with due submission, and also (in order to my Subject) necessarily; for they are the Outworks of the Enemy, from whence they impugne the Civill Power. If notwithstanding this, you find my labour generally decryed, you may be pleased to excuse your selfe, and say that I am a man that love my own opinions, and think all true I say, that I honoured your Brother, and honour you, and have presum'd on that, to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being, as I am,

Sir,

Your most humble, and most obedient servant,
Thomas Hobbes.

Paris APRILL 15/25 1651.


THE CONTENTS OF THE CHAPTERS

THE FIRST PART
OF MAN

  1. Introduction
  2. OF SENSE
  3. OF IMAGINATION
  4. OF THE CONSEQUENCES OR TRAIN OF IMAGINATIONS
  5. OF SPEECH
  6. OF REASON AND SCIENCE
  7. OF OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS, COMMONLY CALLED THE PASSIONS; AND THE SPEECHES BY WHICH THEY ARE EXPRESSED
  8. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE
  9. OF THE VERTUES, COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUALL, AND THEIR CONTRARY DEFECTS
  10. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
  11. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR, AND WORTHINESSE
  12. OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS
  13. OF RELIGION
  14. OF OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND AS CONCERNING THEIR FELICITY AND MISERY
  15. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACT
  16. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE
  17. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED

THE SECOND PART
OF COMMON-WEALTH

  1. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
  2. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION
  3. OF SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON-WEALTH BY INSTITUTION; AND OF SUCCESION TO THE SOVERAIGN POWER
  4. OF DOMINION PATERNALL, AND DESPOTICALL
  5. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTS
  6. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATE
  7. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWER
  8. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
  9. OF COUNSELL
  10. OF CIVILL LAWES
  11. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONS
  12. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDS
  13. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
  14. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVE
  15. OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD BY NATURE

THE THIRD PART
OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH

  1. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES
  2. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITY, AND INTERPRETERS OF THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE
  3. OF THE SIGNIFICATION, OF SPIRIT, ANGELL, AND INSPIRATION IN THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE
  4. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, OF HOLY, SACRED, AND SACRAMENT
  5. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS
  6. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USE
  7. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFE, HEL, SALVATION, THE WORLD TO COME, AND REDEMPTION
  8. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCH
  9. OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, IN ABRAHAM, MOSES, THE HIGH PRIESTS, AND THE KINGS OF JUDAH
  10. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOUR
  11. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALL
  12. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR MANS RECEPTION INTO THE KINGDOME OF HEAVEN

THE FOURTH PART
OF THE KINGDOME OF DARKNESSE

  1. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE
  2. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THE GENTILES
  3. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAINE PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONS
  4. OF THE BENEFIT PROCEEDING FROM SUCH DARKNESSE; AND TO WHOM IT ACCREWETH
  5. A REVIEW AND CONCLUSION

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