Simplicity

In the Philosophy of Religion, the metaphysical attribute of the unity of God: not being composed of parts.

The argument for divine simplicity is two-fold:

Argument 1:

1) For anything that is composed of parts, the parts existed prior to the whole.
2) Nothing existed prior to God.
Therefore, God cannot be composed of parts (i.e., God must be simple).

Argument 2:

1) Anything composed of parts is ontologically dependent on the cause of the parts’ combination.
2) Nothing existed prior to God.
Therefore, there is no cause of God’s parts being combined.
Therefore, God cannot be composed of parts (i.e., God must be simple).

It should be obvious that both of these arguments depend on the truth of the second premise. Thus, the concept of God’s simplicity will follow from God’s eternality. If God turned out to be a being, in time, then there would be no reason to think that God is simple. But, if God is eternal, then God must be simple.