For example, there are two universal and two particular propositions and each one will either be affirmative or negative:

- All
*S*are*P*. -**affirmative** - No
*S*are*P*. -**negative** - Some
*S*are*P*. -**affirmative** - Some
*S*are not*P*. -**negative**

The **quality** of each proposition is determined by whether it is *affirming or denying* a relationship between the
subject (*S*) and predicate (*P*).