Property Dualism

In Metaphysics, the view that while there may be only one substance from which all things are derived, there exists distinct kinds of properties which belong to objects:

A common example used to exemplify the difference between these two types of properties are the three chemical states of solidity, liquidity, and vaporousness. Water may be found in any one of these states. Yet, if we consider a single molecule of water, it seems to be in none of these states. Thus, for water to be in a solid state there must be a complex matrix of water molecules. The same is true for each of the other states. Thus, these states are an "emergent property" of water; it is a property of water only under certain conditions.

Applying this analogy to Dualism, some philosophers argue that consciousness is an emergent, not an elemental property. That is, consciousness exists only when there is a sufficiently complex matrix of neural tissue (or the inorganic equivolent), but not otherwise. The mind emerges out of the complex functioning brain.