Early Christianity

  1. From Jesus to Christ: Background to the Ancient Church

    1. The Life of Jesus of Nazareth -

      1. Born (c. 8 BCE) - Judea
      2. Begins preaching (c. 27 CE)
      3. Baptism by John the Baptist (c. 28 CE)
      4. Executed for sedition in Jerusalem (c. 30 CE)

    2. Early Christians -

      1. Saul of Tarsus (St. Paul) converts (c. 34)
      2. Paul preaches in the Greco-roman provinces of Asia Minor (c. 40)
      3. St. James ("the brother of John") executed in Palestine (c. 44)
      4. The term 'Christian' invented in Antioch, Syria (47)
      5. St. Peter travels to Rome/executed (c. 64)
      6. St. Paul travels to Rome/executed (c. 67)

    3. The Development of Christian Theology -

      1. The Council of Jerusalem (c. 48) - Christians do not have to be Jews
      2. Clement, Bishop of Rome, claims primacy of Roman bishop (c. 95)
      3. Orthodoxy vs. Heterodoxy (heresy) - What does it mean for Jesus to be the son of god?

    4. Major Heresies -

      1. Gnosticism - saved by gnosis (secret knowledge)
      2. Arianism/Macedonianism - Anti-Trinitarian (Son/Spirit not equal to the Father)
      3. Nestorianism - two natures in kristos (not unified)
      4. Pelagianism - humans can choose to do good (free will)
      5. Monophositism - Jesus has one nature
      6. Monotholitism - Jesus has one will

    5. The Ecumenical Councils of the Church (the response to heresy)

      1. Council of Nicaea I (325) - anti-Aryianism (Easter date, primacy of Rome)
      2. Council of Constantinople I (381) - anti-Macedonian (doctrine of trinity)
      3. Council of Ephasis (431) - anti-Nestorian/Pelagian (dual nature of Christ, Mary as theotikos)
      4. Council of Chalcedon (451) - anti-Monophosite (doctrine of incarnation)
      5. Council of Constantinople II (553) - anti-Nestorian (two persons doctrine)
      6. Council of Constantinople III (680) - anti-Monotholites (two natures/one will)
      7. Council of Nicaea II (787) - role of Icons (veneration not adoration)

    6. The Development of the NT Canon -

      1. Epistle to the Thessalonians (c. 49)
      2. Epistle to the Galatians (c. 51)
      3. . Epistles to the Corinthians (c. 55)
      4. Epistles to the Romans (c. 60)
      5. The Gospel of Mark (c. 70)
      6. The Gospel of Luke/Acts (c. 90)
      7. The Apocalypse (c. 95)
      8. The Gospel of Matthew (c. 90)
      9. The Gospel of John (c. 100)
      10. Earliest record of a NT canon (c. 200)
      11. The canon closed by the Synod of Carthage (III) (397)

    NOTE: Rome sacked by the Visigoths in 410 (Alaric I)

  2. The Structure of the Roman Church - Urban

    1. Pantocrator - Emperor
    2. Bishop of Rome - Consul
    3. Cardinal - Senator
    4. Archbishop - Governor
    5. Bishop - Mayor
    6. Pastor - Plebeian Tribune