The Coming of the Celts

Who Were the Keltoi?

  1. Sources

    1. Archaeology -

      1. Burial - Inhumation (grave goods)
      2. Votives (sacrificial objects)
      3. Technology - Advanced Metallurgy
      4. Social Organization - Pastoral
      5. Language - Indo-European

    2. Literature -

      1. Greek
      2. Roman
      3. Medieval -

        1. Secular Irish Law (Brehon Law)
        2. The Myth Cycles
        3. Histories

    3. Contemporary Testimony (Classical Sources)

      1. Polybius (c. 150 BCE) - Greek Historian
      2. Posidonius (c. 100 BCE) - Greek Historian
      3. Julius Caesar (c. 50 BCE) - Roman Consul
      4. Diodorus Siculus (c. 50 BCE) - Greek Historian
      5. Strabo (c. 10 BCE) - Greek Geographer
      6. Tacitus (c. 115 BCE) - Roman Senator
      7. Pausanias (c. 150 CE) - Greek Geographer

  2. Interaction with the Classical World -

    1. Trade - Massilia (600 BCE)

      1. salt
      2. slaves

    2. Raid -

      1. Sack of Clusium/Rome (387 BCE)
      2. Sack of Delphi (279 BCE)

  3. Development of Celtic Culture

    1. The Hallstatt Period (c. 800 - 500 BCE)

    2. La Tene Period (c. 500 BCE - 300 CE)

    3. The Insular Celts

      1. Ethno-linguistic Divisions -

        1. Brythonic - Britons (England/Wales)
        2. Pictish - Picti (Scotland)
        3. Goidelic - Gaels (Ireland)
        4. Scoti (Lt. Irish; Ireland/Scotland)

      2. The Invasion Controversy -

        1. The Invasion Hypothesis
        2. The Migration Hypothesis
        3. The Cultural Influence Hypothesis

      3. The Linguistic Controversy -

      4. P-Celtic:

        1. Gallic
        2. Pritinnic
        3. Brythonic

      5. Q-Celtic:

        1. Goidelic
        2. Celtiberian

    4. What We Know -

      1. c. 500 BCE La Tene artifacts appear
      2. Celtic language dominates Ireland
      3. Celtic culture (including religion) dominates Ireland