Exam 2 - Archaic Period/Presocratic Philosophy
- hoi agathoi
- hoi kakoi
- hoi polloi
- Doric Order
Names to Know:
Things to Know: short answer, listing, and essay
- Who are the three main Ionian Presocratic philosophers, and what is their main contribution to philosophical thought?
- According to Aristotle, Thale’ claim that water is the arche (principle substance) rests on what three assumptions?
- What is Xenophanes‘ main contribution to philosophical thought?
- How is Xenophanes view of God different from the Homeric/Hesiadic tradition?
- What is the problem of sensation versus knowledge according to Heraclitus.
- Heraclitus appeals to the element of fire as a central metaphor in his philosophical work. What does it symbolize?
- In what ways are the views of Parmenides divergent from earlier pre-socratic philosophers like the Melisians?
- According to Parmenides, what is the paradox of becoming?
- What are Zeno's four paradoxes, and what are they designed to show?
- What does Empedocles introduce as the cause of change in the universe (i.e., how does he explain how one thing turns into many)?
- In what sense is Anaxagoras considered a metaphysical pluralist?
- Anaxagoras is perpported to have been the first philosopher to articulate a theory of efficient causation. What does he
think is the efficient cause of the motion (vortex) in the universe and the cause of elemental separation that brings about the world
- What is Democritus' contribution to early philosophical thought?
- Explain how the Presocratics' view of the universe is different from that of the poetic tradition of the Dark and Archaic Ages.
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