Overview of Philosophical Logic
Definition: 'Logic' (Gr. - logike) is the systematic investigation of arguments (or, the process of rational thinking).
- The Three Basic Questions of Logic:
- What is an argument?
- What makes an argument work?
- What makes an argument fail?
- The Primary Types of Logical Systems:
- Syllogistic Logic - relations of categorical propositions
- Propositional (or Sentential) Logic - relations of propositions
- Predicate (First-Order) Logic - relations of quantifiers (i.e., particulars and universals)
- Modal Logic - relations of modalities ('possible', 'necessary', etc.)
- A Brief History of Logic:
- Pre-Aristotelian Logic: Logos vs. Muthos - the birth of Philosophy
- Pythagorianism/Euclid (c. 300 BCE) - linear deduction
- Zeno of Elea (c. 450BCE) - reductio ad absurdum
- Socrates/Plato (428-347 BCE) - truth and definition
- Aristotle (384-322 BCE) - first systematic Logic
- Stoicism - Chrysippus (280-206 BCE)
- Modalities (potential/actual)
- Conditionalities (hypothetical)
- Medieval Logic:
- Western (Scholasticism)
- Islamic
- Modern Logic:
- Enlightenement -
- Francis Bacon
- Rene Descartes
- Gottfried Leibniz
- Nineteenth Century-
- Algebraic Logic
- Logiscism
- Twentieth Century -
- Mathematical Logic
- Set Theory
- Computability
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