Lecture 9

Inductive Arguments

 

Analogical Arguments: 

 

A.  Structure

 

 p1  A has the set of properties {p, q, r, and s}.

 

p2  B has the set of properties {p, q and r}.

 

Conclusion:  Because of its similarities with A, B probably has attribute s also.

 

B. Elements - the strength of an analogical argument depends upon the number and similarity of the analogues.  The individual points of similarity are called 'analogates'.

 

Definition:  Analogues - the shared characteristics in the premises of an analogical argument.

 

1. Primary Analogates - the set of shared characteristics

 

2. Secondary Analogates - the characteristic in question

 

         C. Evaluation of Analogical Arguments -

 

1. relevance of the similarities of the analogue

 

2. the number of similarities between the analogates

 

3. is there a strong disanalogy

 

4. the number of primary analogates

 

5. the diversity among the primary analogates

 

6. the specificity of the conclusion