Lecture 9

Inductive Arguments


Analogical Arguments: 


A.  Structure


 p1  A has the set of properties {p, q, r, and s}.


p2  B has the set of properties {p, q and r}.


Conclusion:  Because of its similarities with A, B probably has attribute s also.


B. Elements - the strength of an analogical argument depends upon the number and similarity of the analogues.  The individual points of similarity are called 'analogates'.


Definition:  Analogues - the shared characteristics in the premises of an analogical argument.


1. Primary Analogates - the set of shared characteristics


2. Secondary Analogates - the characteristic in question


         C. Evaluation of Analogical Arguments -


1. relevance of the similarities of the analogue


2. the number of similarities between the analogates


3. is there a strong disanalogy


4. the number of primary analogates


5. the diversity among the primary analogates


6. the specificity of the conclusion