The Genesis of Philosophy
- How did it all get started?
- The Intellectual Shift -
- mythos - story, narrative, mythos
- logos - argument, account, explanation
- The Social/Political/Historical Context -
- Where? - Hellas (Greece)
- When? - 7th Century BCE
- Egypt - 26th Dynasty/3rd IP
- Judea – destruction of Jerusalem/Babylonian Captivity (587 BCE) - Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Daniel
- Mesopotamia – Fall of Assyria (612 BCE)/Rise of Neo-Babylonian Empire (Nebuchadnezzar II)
- Persia – Cyrus the Great (559-530 BCE), Zoroastrianism
- India - completion of the Upanisads; Siddhartha Gotama (c. 563 – c. 483 BCE) and the Buddhist reformation
- China - Lao Tzu (born c. 604 BCE) composes the Tao Te Ching; K'ung-fu-tzu (551-479 BCE) composes the I-ching and Analects
- WHY? - What's so different about Greece?
- The First Philosophers ("Pre-Socratics"):
- What is the substance of things?
- Thales (c. 585 BCE) - all things are “water”
- Anaximander (c. 580 BCE) – all things come from the “infinite” (ton apeiron)
- Pythagoras (c. 571 BCE) - all things are made of ”numbers”
- Democritus (c. 460 BCE) - all things are made of “the indivisible” (atom)
- What is the nature of Nature?
- Change - Heraklitos (c. 500 BCE) - all things are in motion
- Permanence - Parmenides c. 485 BCE – all things are one
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